One of the major sources of clean water is from groundwater. In the US, about 50% of homes get their drinking water from it. However, groundwater may contain stuff from natural sources such as soil and minerals. It can also have stuff from synthetic sources such as drugs, motor oil and toxic chemicals from mining sites, as well as waste materials. It has to go through many processes to filter the water before it goes to where it is supposed to go. The final stage is always the filter underdrain, which manages the backwash.
Health effects of unfiltered groundwater
People who drink or use contaminated water in any way can suffer serious health problems. Dysentery, hepatitis, and some cancers are just some of the effects. Toxic chemicals can also get into livestock, wildlife, and crops. When people consume the tainted foodstuffs, they can also get sick.
Types of water filters
The harmful stuff in water is not always big enough to see, so it has to go through many filtration stages to make it safe for use. There are two kinds, the gravity and pressure filters. Gravity filters depend on the natural flow of water downward to get the toxic stuff out. Using pressure instead of gravity makes the process faster.
The major parts of a typical gravity filter is a filter tank, filter sand, gravel support bed, filter underdrain system, wash water troughs, and filter bed agitators. With pressure filters, the water goes into a pressurized steel tank and goes through three layers of filters, including coal, sand, and gravel. Sometimes, an extra layer can contain garnet. The final stage is the filter underdrain system, which handles the backwash.
It is important to note that the backwash is important to keep the filter system working. Without the filter underdrain system, the filter will break down quite quickly.